How to Survive a Heart Attack

Act Quickly

Call 9-1-1 immediately. The longer you wait to get medical treatment, the greater the likelihood you will have severe, permanent damage to your heart or even die. The earlier you are treated, the more likely it is that damage to your heart will be kept to a minimum. Many treatments are most effective if given within 1 to 2 hours of when the heart attack begins. It is important to call emergency services because research shows that people who arrive at the hospital via ambulance are treated sooner than those who get there by their own means. Calling your primary care physician instead can add to delays in receiving treatment.

Women having a heart attack are more likely than men to delay in seeking treatment. This is partly because women are less likely to realize that they are vulnerable to heart disease. Talk with your family and friends about the heart attack warning signs and the importance of acting fast by calling 9-1-1 within a few minutes 5 at the most if those signs persist. Explain to them that you will be treated faster if they call 9-1-1 rather than driving you to the hospital themselves.

Below are some additional preparations you can make; however, you should not lose precious time searching for pills or documentation before calling 9-1-1.

Chew an Aspirin

After calling for help, you should chew an aspirin (162 mg to 325 mg), if it’s on hand, to help prevent further clots developing. A chewed aspirin gets into the bloodstream more quickly than one swallowed whole. Enteric-coated or buffered aspirin is not absorbed as easily as regular aspirin. But if that is the only type of aspirin you have, crush the tablet before swallowing.


If you’ve already had a heart attack, ask your physician about having nitroglycerin available in the event of a subsequent attack. If you experience chest pain that does not go away 5 minutes after taking one nitroglycerin tablet, call 9-1-1. You may take up to 3 nitroglycerin tablets (1 every 5 minutes) while waiting for the ambulance.

Information to Have Available

Find out the location of the nearest hospital that offers 24-hour emergency cardiac care and keep the address handy.

The American Heart Association recommends that doctors give a copy of the resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to patients who have heart disease or who are at high-risk for a heart attack. If you have a copy of your resting ECG, give it to the emergency department doctors to help guide your treatment.

Make a list of medications you are taking and/or are allergic to. This will help ensure that you receive the appropriate treatments.

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