TDR developed the San Francisco Bay Area Development Plan which established growth projections of infrastructure, population, commuter traffic, urban growth rates, traffic congestion, pollution, greenbelt areas, job growth and residential development rates for San Francisco Bay Area cities well into the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2020. Recommendations were implemented without harming existing ecology and preserving green park areas. Other projects: The Nexus Mobile Floating Sea City and the “Prosperity Tower,” the world’s tallest retail/office structure for the Hung Kuo Financial Group in Taipei, Taiwan, incorporate special ecological technology and self-sufficient energy systems. TDR’s two-mile high Sky City Tower is powered by the sun, wind, and atmospheric pressure differentials. This design prevents the destructive effects of urban sprawl by creating a vertically directed growth structure protecting the natural environment for public recreational use.
- City On The Sea
- Telos: The World’s Most Spectacular Education/Recreation/Technology Park – Brisbane, California USA
- Nexus Mobile Floating Sea City – Anywhere in the world
- The “Ultima” Tower, Two-mile High Sky City – Any densely populated urban environment
- Shenzhen Ecological Theme Park – Shenzhen, China
- Strait of Gibraltar Floating Bridge connecting Europe and African continents at the Strait of Gibraltar
- Telos – Mount Shasta, Siskiyou County, California USA
City On The Sea
This self-sufficient city design is based on harnessing ocean wave power, solar and windmill power combined to produce sufficient electrical generation to power an entire city. This city design is proposed for windy and cooler climates that require protected structures that are aerodynamic and designed to utilize wind to great advantage. Four, giant, counter-rotating windmills at the top of the apartment unit tower creates enough electrical energy to power the entire city. Photovoltaic panels, integral with the design, supply auxiliary power throughout the city. During the turbulent windy season, when the sea is most active, a series of air plenums are employed to create turbine generation for power. This is located at the water’s edge, along a catenary arch structure. The power produced from this source is used to convert sea water to fresh drinking water which is then recycled through a system of cleansing tanks filled with special water plants and marine life that take raw sewage and, using only plant vegetation, transform and cleanse it to drinking water. This system is called a “Living Machine”. The base and tower structure are both designed to be aerodynamically and structurally efficient. The tower structure can be thought of as a spinal system structure with a rib-cage-like upper structure–much like our own human body. Stress and strain is directed and dispersed along the rear “spine” structure and into the base footings just as our own body’s spinal column takes stresses from our upper body and directs it into our hip and leg area. This city design has a 30,000-person capacity. Exterior sheathing is gold anodized aluminum. Internal support structure is reinforced, waterproof concrete. This project was initiated through a grant from the National Endowment For The Arts (Canada).
Telos: The World’s Most Spectacular Education/Recreation/Technology Park
Brisbane, California USA
Owner: Initial proposal to Mr. Y.H.Chen, Tuntex Corporation, Taipai, Taiwan
Location: Brisbane, California USA
Acreage: 910 Acres (200 acres in the San Francisco Bay)
On a bay-side 910 acre (6006 Mu) track of land overlooking the San Francisco Bay in northern California was proposed this unprecedented theme park design that housed the world’s most far-reaching ideas in every field of human endeavor; from education to the design of lunar cities; from new garden tools to the transformation of science and technology; this theme park is a step into the incredible mind of nature and human kind as collaborators and caregivers of the planet earth. The park is itself a self-sustaining and regenerating mini-city and garden. A self-replenishing garden of Eden on earth with an eye towards the heavenly cosmos. Of its many features visitors will marvel at the 2 kilometer long waterfall that stands 30 meters high–the largest human made waterfall in the world–and used in part, to clean and recycle water used inside the park. At the foreground of the park is an extensive bank of photo-voltaic solar panels that are computer-tracking the sun’s daily angle to achieve maximum efficiency.
All building designs; the tension cable floating recreation center, the ocean breeze cooled apartment hotel, the “Crystal Mountain” collection of the world’s most unique mineral crystals, the “Telos Tower” which contains ten built-in windmills, a recycled salt water solar heating system, a cantilevered spherical theater and a see-through glass floor “Architorium”, the “Natorium” nature exploratorium, the hydrogen gas manufacturing plant, the aquatic, overhead marine monorail system and the experimental testing grounds for the most imaginative concepts in vehicles and architecture; all of these destinations are a part of the park and much more. Only 2 miles from the San Francisco International Airport and 2 miles to the city of San Francisco the park is located in an ideal location with a guaranteed visitor influx of 40,000,000 persons per year. Nowhere in the world has there ever been attempted an interactive collection of the most advanced and profound concepts of humanity. Telos (which means purposefulness) invites the visitor to enter the universe of human ingenuity and the ineffable mind of nature.
Construction Materials: Reinforced concrete, mineral crystals, ceramic tile, stainless steel cables, recycled glass, recycled styrene/cement block, Insteel panels, Teflon-coated nylon, stainless steel tubing, UV-treated plastic pneumatic material, Cor 10 steel, recycled automobie tires, native stone and granite, native wood for interior finishing, recycled carpeting, glass cullet, Thermo-con spray-on cellulose, Polygal panels and self-shading glass, and volcanic rock.
Special Features: Recycled salt water distillation mechanism, 300 foot waterfalls, mineral crystal mountain, self sufficient solar and windmill energy systems, 8000 foot long–80 foot high waterfall, solar heated salt water radiant heating systems, “eggbeater” and “arrowhead” windmills, hinged support membrane roof structures, pneumatic roof and canopy mechanisms, photovoltaic solar cells, water wheel generators, solar distillation plants, hydrogen gas energy systems, water plant water cleansing system, expansion/contraction hinged building mechanisms, rotating corkscrew roof, computer-tracking photovoltaic electrical systems and parabolic reflector water cleansing systems.
Owner Requirements: “It has to make lots of money.”
Ecological Requirements: From the owner none.
General Background of the Project: Telos began as dream to create a place, that could be visited by anyone in the world, where one could come to learn about the most far-reaching ideas in every field of human endeavor and to be in an environment of extraordinary beauty and thoughtfulness.
Aerial view of the Telos Model
The name, Telos, is derived from the Greek term, Telos, meaning end, or, final purpose. The purpose of Telos is to create a strikingly unique environment where people are encouraged to experience design in new and exciting ways, to engage their curiosity, to find meaning and purpose in the natural and human-made setting around them and, ultimately, to come closer to discovering their own creative potential and purpose in being.
Telos will offer an extraordinary opportunity for the public to be exposed to ideas and implemented concepts which are examples of great, imaginative possibilities in design-based creative endeavor. In offering this kind and quaity of exposure it is hoped that persons will come away from the experience enlivened and enriched and feeling that they too are capable of significant and, as yet, undiscovered capabilities within themselves.
One of the most extraordinary features of Telos is that public visitors are active contributors by suggesting new activities and modifying present activities. The public is encouraged to play an active role in the development of various concepts and programs at Telos. Thus, Telos activities will continue to be rooted in creating products that are realistically desired by a needful audience.
Telos is an act of faith; faith in the creative powers of the human spirit. It is predicated upon a conviction that, given the opportunity to encounter wondrous, awe-inspiring experiences, individuals will, to some personal degree, transform these experiences creatively and positively in their daily lives.
Telos is financially sustained by world wide public visitation and is designed to be visited repeatedly. In order to facilitate frequent returns, the design of the site must be so extensively unique and compelling as to make first-time full comprehension nearly impossible. One must return many times to see and experience the development as a whole.
The nature of the programs at Telos supports an ever-changing surfeit of experiences. Programmatic changes accur seasonally and are often initiated by the suggestions of the general public as well as established administrators. The public becomes an idea-generating force and telos acts as experimental facilitating grounds thereby creating an extremely potent and educative environment for sharing and learning. This two-way, self-motivated quality of activity is an extraordinary circumstance; especially notable is that Telos finances itself through admission charges and royalties produced by implemented concepts developed on site.
The site and buildings are purposely designed to create spectacle and to overwhelm–inviting further inquiry and discovery. Questions such as, “What is that?”, “How does this work?”, “What is that for?”, “How did they make that?”, ought to be frequently overheard. The intention is to compel people to emotionally respond and to engage their curiosity; creating the generative grounds for an exciting educative experience. Great emphasis and care is placed upon the avoidance of superficial effects, e.g., the reiteration of established images and the repetitive use of familiar symbols. Consequently, Telos has no cultural, religious and national identity. Its suggested message is one of freedom and originality; a universal place for all people to come and discover and learn. An oasis from the conforming precepts of modern society.
The ambiance at telos is one of striking originality, unbridled imagination and the unified outward expression of form, function and purpose. Very little is created merely for its own sake. Everything at Telos has an inherent purpose and the public is invited to discover that purpose. The site and buildings are, themselves, the educational experience that is continually fresh and new. Even as the quality of light changes during the day and evening so does Telos seem to transform itself to reveal new vistas, new perspectives and forms.
Telos comprises the following major buildings and activity areas:
The Architorium (architecture plus exploratorium) is a spectacular environment designed to aqctivelt engage the general public in the exploration of design, technology, structures, history, aesthetics and natural phenomenon which form our built environment. The space within is divided into ten activity zones:
- Materials and Construction Processes
- Nature Architecture
- Wind Tunnel and Aerodynamics
- Site Considerations and Simulation Laboratory
- Aesthetic Principles
- Future Possibilities
- Construction and Production Workshop
This human-made mountain is made of large mineral crystals from around the world. It would be the largest collection of mineral crystals ever assembled in one structure. The public is invited to explore the mountain to experience the beauty and wonder of nature’s crystalline diversity. The mountain contains a marvelous labyrinth of mineral crystal catacombs that can be explored day and night. At night the mountain is lit up from within giving it a captivating glow which beckons one to discover its mysterious secrets. At the crown of the mountain is the great crystal waterfall 300 feet high with a suspended restaurant above and inside the waterfall. The spike-like elements of the restaurant structure are the radiant solar water collectors that heat the habitable spaces within. The conical collectors store solar heated water in the daytime and then drain the water throughout inner coils in the walls and floors of the building. Visitors can travel behind the great waterfall and shallow catacombs contain small ponds created by run-off from the waterfall.
Telos Tower consists of 35 floors rising to a height of 350 feet with an inclined, 1000 foot high look-out tower with viewing elevators stacked seven tiers high.
The Telos Tower structure would be the world’s tallest incline structure rising 350 feet high. Its structural frame is modeled after the human rib cage with vertical stability produced by a continuous limb/footing which acts as a underground cantilever to resist the overturn tendancies of the incline tower. The tower consists of s backbone spine from which the rib cage, or continuous cantilevered floors, extend outward into the air. 60 feet off the ground and 100 feet in diameter is cantilevered a giant hovering orb which is the Telos auditorium/theatre. The purpose of this special theatre is to view/experience a program of understandng the earth and the universe from WITHIN the earth’s core–looking from the inside–out. This allows the audience to experience the shifting of geological and continental masses from the earth’s standpoint. A crossectional rendering illustrates the structural configuration of tower and theatre. The looming incline of the tower and the gravity-defying cantilever of the auditorium sphere give the building a daring countenance.
At the base of the Telos Tower sits the Architorium with its hinged, hydraulic opening and closing roof mechanisms. The building can be likened to a giant clam shell; two parabolic disks with a series of hinging panels comprising the upper shell. Our studies have shown that the strength to weight ratio of the clam form is approximetly 1 to 530. That is, the clam form has been shown to withstand direct downward loads 530 times its own weight before fatiguing. This kind of intrinsic strength need not be utilized in a building but the form gives us an understanding of inherent load properties. Given that we have lightweight, movable materials which are transparent and transluscent, these materials would work very well in keeping with the overall shape, supplying adequate rigidity and retaining structural strength without the usual heavy integument and fascia material.
THE NATORIUM (nature exploratorium)
The Natorium is an interactive facility committed to teaching the public about the use of nature as a basis for all human discoveries, technological, physiological and spiritual development. History has shown us that every revelation of humanity, every act of progress, has come from the insights of nature applied for human benefit.
Structurally, the building resembles an upsidedown truncated cone with a pneumatic, convertible roof that opens and closes by varying air pressure. The central canopy is a hinged geodesic dome invented by Chuck Hoberman. The collapsible and expanding capabilities of this dome allow the roof to open like a camera shutter while still being waterproof. The building comes alive with the necessity of enclosure from rain and cold weather.
The exterior “skin” of the building is a regenerative skin tissue of varying colors and transluscencies. A skin-like living tissue, artificially manufactured is placed in a nutrient-rich sheath of living organisms. Sunlight, water, glucose and air are the principal ingredients needed to maintain this “living wall.” Here is the integration of dead and living matter–the building is truly organic–a biological living entity capable of regenerating itself. But the application of biology is not enough; the highest applications of art must also be present. Infused with the presence of this skin-like growth of the building is the Polygal and tempered glass mural which surrounds the building.
MAGNA PRODUCTION STUDIO
A giant mega-sized building housing the research, development and production of new ideas and technologies. It is an opportunity for the public to meet inventive persons in an inventive setting. This is a place where how’s, why’s and why not abound and the spirit of exploration and ingenuity has a captured audience. It is a unique chance for the public to participate in the imagination and rigorous trial and error testing of various ideas in science, technology, art,music, athletics; virtually every human field of endeavor. A kind of open book of observing the process of human creative genius.
HYDROGEN GAS PARK
This is the storage area of hydrogen gas produced by sunlight and used to create electrical power. The public can learn how sunlight is used as a catalyst to separate hydrogen gas from oxygen and how this process can produce electrical power. The buildings are shaped like giant rockets to provide for maximum structural efficiency with minimum floor space used. The process of separating hydrogen gas from oxygen can be observed. This process can be used for home and office purposes and the park is a means to educate the public to be self-sufficient in their generation of electrical power. It is clean, odorless, non-toxic and a positive contribution to the soil and atmosphere (water and fresh oxygen produced).
THE EXPANSION/CONTRACTION EXHIBIT HALL
This structurally adjustable exhibit building has a hinged, expanding/contracting wall system. Anodized aluminum criss-crossing channel members are hinged where they intersect. An expandable fine screen mesh is attached between the hinged members. The entire wall sheathing can extend upward or compress downward depending upon the position of the centrally supported revolving roof. At the center of the building is a corkscrew-like composite metal shaft on which rests the 200 foot diameter composite plastic and glass roof. At the center of the roof is a small geared motor which turns the roof and allows it to follow the threads of the central pylon. When the roof rotates clockwise the building extends upwards; counter-clockwise, the roof decends. As the roof moves high or low the expanding/contracting walls expand upward or compress downward. Thus the building is completely adjustable in its use of enclosed space.
TELOS APARTMENT DORMITORIES
The building is designed to catch the breezes of the San Francisco Bay for use as air conditioning throughout the interior. In plan the building is shaped like a giant air scoop funneling breeze into interior spaces and within smaller venting tubes located within the hollow floors of the structure. The interior structure is planned similiar to a wasp nest in that layers of structure and open vent spacing alternate to form an insulative yet breathable structure. In the same way the Telos apartment tower can be likened to a breathing organism in that wind is brought into the inner structure of the building to regulate internal temperatures. The complex is used to house the directors and visiting individuals who actively participate in the curriculum of the park.
Twelve spherical floating restaurants each express an aspect of nature; the microscopic world, the vegetal world, the marine world, ecology, the cosmos. etc. Visitors are immersed in an enthralling environment where they experience another facet of nature. The spherical shape of the restaurants maximize the bouyancy of the design and allows a portion of the space to be naturally submerged in a freshwater lake. Visitors can view the underwater life teaming in the lake while they dine. Solar gain is controlled by electro-stimulated self-shading glass that becomes opaque by applying electrical current. As in the beaver den air vents are located at the upper levels of the restaurant sphere letting fresh air in and out of the enclosure.
The Telos amphitheatre is a mutiple-use outdoor gathering area which features an inflatable/deflatable pneumatic roof system. Retaining walls at the sides of the amphitheatre contain hidden louvers which house the furled-up transparent Teflon-coated nylon roof material. When pressurized air is activated the roof pushes outwards from the walls and forms a pneumatic cantilever 100 yards in length from each side–200 yards in total width of the amphitheatre. Once the two sides touch they form a waterproof seal by use of an overlapping joint system similiar to connection principle of Velcro. Able to accommodate 100,000 people this amphitheatre is the largest outdoor facility of its kind in the world.
AQUATIC SPORTS CENTER
This floating reinforced concrete building is positioned in an existing sea water lagoon. An important reason for its floating in water is for protection against earthquake shock forces. In event of an earthquake the building will be significanty buffered by the water. Other features include giant hinged roof panels that open and close according to climatic conditions. In the spring, summer and fall the roof of the building is open to the sky making all gymnasiums and training rooms as open-air pavillions. sunlight baths the interior without bringing in cool winds. The structure is designed like an open bird’s nest letting wind pass around and over it without be drawn into the bowl of the nest. The configuration of interior spaces also affords direct visual contact to all major facilities from the central lobby area.
AIRPLANE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING STRIP
Where experimental flying vehicles are tested. The park contains its own air strip near the exhibition building. Vehicles such as gyrocopters, helicopters, vertical takeoff and landing planes, etc., are designed and tested and the public can observe the research and design development process.
This floating marina features a lateral hinging system of connecting friction joints that allows the the structure to act as a buffer to water waves acting on it. The structure is comprised of a series of hollow tubes bouyed up by the water. The marina is powered by its own series of seven “egg-beater” type windmills. The marina is also equipped with umbrella-like roof membranes that hinge into place during winter months and rains. The marina accommodates small and large marine vessels and houses seven tourist submarines for exploration of the Bay and the Pacific coastline.
An existing Southern Pacific railway line runs through the site stopping at the main trainstation between the exhibition building and Telos tower.
BUS DOCKING AREA
Buses also have direct access to the site. No automobiles are allowed on the site. Buses are powered by hydrogen gas and are specially designed to be aerodynamic and carry a maximum load of people.
THE WATERFALL WALL
This structure is the largest human-made waterfall in the word. 6000 feet long and 100 feet high it is the entrance way to the park. Visitors must pass through the waters of the fall. This is done by a series of catanary clear acylic arches that protect persons as they pass through. The falls is also a water cleansing mechanism whereby the falling of the water oxygenates and kills the bacteria in the water. All fresh water lakes from the site converge into the waterfall. The water is then pumped back into the park for recreational use. Electricity producing water wheels are integrated into the waterfall to produce electrical power. This electricity is used to power water pumps to direct fresh water to the park. The ambiance created by the waterfalls is exhilarating and impressive. The sound also acts as an ambient noise barrier from the neighboring freeway.
SKYWAY TRANSPORT SYSTEM
A continuous system of vehicles provide transportation throughout the park. Vehicles are set in overhead water troughs with water current, created by the great waterfall, propelling the vehicles forward. These water tracks are supported by pylons twenty feet in the air and stop at designated platforms located on the property or inside any of the buildings.
PHOTO-VOLTAIC SOLAR CELL BANKS
A 150 acre bank of photo-voltaic solar cells powers all of the electricity to the park. Underground storage batteries allow the electricity to be used when needed.
VEHICLE TESTING TRACK
For testing unusual prototypes in vehicle design. This encompasses bicycles, motorcycles, automobiles, trucks, trains–any vehicle that moves. Testing is also done for new kinds of power fuels; propane, methane gas, hydrogen gas, heated carbon, etc.
EXPERIMENTAL STRUCTURES DEVELOPMENT GROUNDS
This is where all kinds of structural forms can be built at full scale to test and experience the beauties of architecture; buildings built for their own sake not merely for expedience. 100 acres of land is set aside for experimental construction use. Here visitors will have the freedom to experience the most far-reaching architectural ideas of our time and to design buildings from their own imagination funded by construction corporations.
Running, walking, bicyling and electric mini-vehicle pathways wend throughout the site Embellished by thoughtful landscaping and ground-level built-in lighting the paths are intimate yet expansive and extent to 5 miles of complete path routes.
SWIMMING LAKES AND RIVER
The site contains several swimming lakes and beaches with small rivers and streams of fresh water embracing the entire park. In many instances buildings are placed within their water surroundings like majestic islands in a sea of blue. The presence of water contributes to the ecological balance of the site beavers and other water maintaining animals are plentiful. Visitors swim in any number of lakes and can positively learn from the natural environment.
Nexus: Mobile Floating Sea City
Anywhere in the world
Project Owner: Individual and Corporate Sponsorship. Privately owned as a cooperative community. Each inhabitant pays a small percentage of the total cost. For a population of 50,000 people this requires an investment of approximately $100,000.00 to $200,000.00 A loan/payback plan might be initiated whereby individual loans are taken out by each individual and is then paid back from money made by the community after it is a going concern. Interested organizations would act as lending institutions to cover the initial costs. Possible sponsorship might come from corporations such as Lucasfilm, Walt Disney Productions, Amblin Productions, Microsoft and other tourism or technology-based companies.
Due to the inevitable appeal of such a community as a tourist attraction the return on initial investment are dependable. Disneyland, Disney World and EPCOT Center are popular examples of this phenomenon.
Imposed financial limitations would require that any person wishing to “sell” their ownership in the cooperative community must not sell for profit. That is, the selling price must be equivalent to the initial purchasing price plus inflation, etc. This will help to prevent the community from becoming a real estate profiteering enterprise.
View from within city
Location: Built in the calcium-rich coast line of the southeast Asian countries by a consortium of international builders.
Cost: 10 billion US dollars
Population: up to 50,000 people
Approximate Dimensions: 4.7 miles long by 2.5 miles wide (7.5 Kilometers long by 4 kilometers wide)
Surface Area: 22 Square Kilometers (5,335 square acres)
This is a floating city designed to accommodate 100,000 persons. 7 kilometers long and 4 kilometers wide with the capacity to be mobile, grow its own food, produce its own electricity and, owing to it existing beyond the 12 mile governmental jurisdiction boundaries, create its own government, income system and tax base. In essence, this mobile city becomes its own independent country. The structural material for the project is electrolytic concrete made from seawater mineral salts that adhere to steel rebar submerged underwater with a small amount of electrical current applied to the bar. Over a short time the mineral salts from the seawater accretes onto the steel to form a concrete material. The process is extremely inexpensive and produces reinforced concrete suitable for creating structures. The structure is built underwater and is then floated to the surface when completed. The city utilizes several different types of electrical power generation. Five Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion units are positioned at strategic zones of the city to supply electricity. Banks of freestanding windmills and photo-voltaic solar cells produce additional electricity. The “head” of the floating city is a small mountain range with a specially designed frontal structure that cuts Tsunami tidal waves into smaller, manageable waves with little destructive effect. It is a tidal wave barrier that requires the city to head into the on-coming wave. An adjustable set of hydrodynamic “limbs” adapts to the needed amount of marine agriculture garden area depending upon population needs. The “limbs” also reduce water drag when positioned together. The greatest advantage to the city’s mobility is that when it rests in one place for a while to exploit the ocean’s resources it can then move onward so that that particular area is not depleted and can replenish itself thus protecting and preserving the ocean’s bounty. The city grows its own food and is an agrarian-based population utilizing advanced, nature-based technologies that produce no toxic pollutants. “Living Machines” and solar desalination plants create and recycle all water for human use. The city, in essence, is a living organism based upon ocean resources and climate.
Construction Materials: Electrolytic sea mineral concrete, reinforced concrete, copper sheathing, waterproof concrete, glass-fiber reinforced acrylic, carbon-fiber polymer plastics, “Cor-10” steel, “Magnaweave” structural plastic and copper/stainless steel alloy cables.
Construction Period: Phase I-4 years; Phase II-3 years; Phase III-2 years
Construction Methods: Underwater electrolytic base structure; balloon floatation system; water pump process; “Binishell” inflatable dome system; glass-fiber weave with liquid resin; spray-on ferro concrete; soil infill on concrete base; synthetic “netting” attached to inclined foundation.
Power Sources: Solar electrical generators, photovoltaic solar cells, OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy) power plants, windmill generators.
Food Sources: Agriculture, livestock, fish farming, sea weed cultivation, mariculture (marine agriculture), fresh water distilling, OTEC distilling.
View from within city
Economic Sources: Tourism, marine research exploration, nautical vessel design and production, exportation of sand and ballast dredging, mineral and metal dredging i.e., salt, magnesium, pharmaceuticals, dyes, strontium (used in fireworks, flares, etc.), Rubidium (used in photoelectric cells), copper, manganese dioxide and gold, fertilizers manufactured from seaweed and sewage, distilling plants to provide fresh water to the mainland, fresh water to turn formerly arid lands, on the mainland, to orchards and gardens, exportation of fresh water to distant areas on the mainland, fish farming (fish have extremely high conversion ratio of feed consumed to meat produced); fish feed can be processed from waste products, i.e., sewage, and yield of fish produced from fish farms should equal, if not exceed, the productivity of any warm-water pond; seaweed production, scientific and technological inventions such as portable sea water-to-fresh water distilleries, more efficient photovoltaic cells, improved mariculture techniques, improved windmill design, new kinds of undersea exploration vessels, new developments in boat and floating home designs, etc.
Suitable Areas of existence: Southern California coast, southeast coast of Massachusetts (Martha’s Vineyard), the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, off the coast of Israel, the Persian Gulf, the South American coast below Rio De Janeiro, the Gulf of Mexico, the Java Sea northward to the Gulf of Siam, the Baltic Sea and the northern half of the Adriatic sea between the coasts of Italy and Yugoslavia.
Public Transportation Systems: “Maglev” electromagnetic high speed train and underwater “subway” system; Aerotaxi (flying and floating taxi vehicle capable of holding thirty persons), nautical taxi capable of high speed and undersea travel (12 to 100 person capacity depending upon size of vehicle).
Private Transportation: Four person jet-air flying platform, amphibious hovercraft vehicles, sailing craft and nautical vehicles and pedal vehicles.
Transportation To and From the Sea City: “Ringwing” jumbo passenger turbofan jet, vertical take-off turbofan jets, high speed passenger ferry and privately owned nautical vessels.
Sectional schematics showing floating structure
Sea City Propulsion: Twenty seven turbo electric drive water-jet/contra-rotating propeller engine system. System is attached to a Pelton water turbine so that electrical power is recycled into main electrical supply generators thus creating its own electrical energy with minimal power loss.
Range of Speed: 1 to 5 Kilometers per hour.
Judicial System: Given that the Nexus Mobile Floating Sea City Community exists outside the twelve mile boundary of all governing national jurisdictions Phase I of the project will contain approximately 10,000 to 15,000 persons who will act as an experimental; group to lay down the founding laws and principles of the city. Because the overall community is made of several very small neighborhood communities each community might wish to develop their own ways of evolving laws.
Studies have pointed out that there is a strong tendency for crime to develop in circumstances where individuals feel a lack of relationship with the community due to the large size of the community. When a community is very small and each person feels a kinship with others in the community crime is usually minimal. This phenomenon is enhanced and strategically applied to the formation of communities of the Nexus Project.
LIST OF PHYSICAL DESIGN ELEMENTS
- 1) Parks
- 2) Open-air sheltered food markets
- 3) Museum with Planetarium
- 4) Gymnasiums
- 5) Libraries
- 6) Lakes, canals and rivers
- 7) Botanical gardens
- 8) Outdoor amphitheaters
- 9) Extensive walking, biking and running pathways
- 10) Water-jet fountains
- 11) Vendor and kiosk areas
- 12) Marine life observation holding areas and observation vessels
- 13) “Maglev” high-speed electromagnetic public transport “train” for above sea and undersea transport
- 14) Residential areas with waterway canal system and mountain terrain
- 15) Community meeting halls
- 16) Schools
- 17) Hospitals
- 18) Public transportation stations
- 19) Electrical power plants from solar and wind power
- 20) Boat industry buildings
- 21) Fish farming areas
- 22) Sand and dredging plants, transport barges and storage/refinery buildings 23) Pharmaceutical plants
- 24) Undersea exploration laboratories
- 25) Livestock farms
- 26) Agricultural farms
- 27) Vineyards
- 28) Fresh water distillery plants (from seawater)
- 29) Salt production plants
- 30) Sewage treatment plants
- 31) University with international exchange programs
- 32) Mining plants
- 33) Electrical storage areas–underground
- 34) Electrical generator stations–underground
- 35) Wave power stations (experimental prototypes)
- 36) Airport with vertical takeoff, “Magnus” effect and turbo-fan jet airplanes
- 37) Swimming beaches
- 38) Private residences
- 39) Five major hotels
- 40) Mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, canals, fields and grazing lands
- 41) Protective tsunami wave and storm barrier
- 42) Wave diffusion barriers
- 43) Telecommunication centers
- 44) Bridges
- 45) Community shopping centers
- 46) Community “city center” areas
- 47) Community recreation centers
- 48) Undersea farming facilities
- 49) Produce distribution centers
- 50) Marinas
- 51) Commercial, retail and business towers
- 52) Exhibition spaces–indoor and outdoor
- 53) Marine research laboratories
- 54) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants
- 55) Ferry terminal
- 56) Aerotaxi takeoff and landing areas
- 57) Underwater observation areas
- 58) Soil observation areas
- 59) Television and radio stations
- 60) Import and export docking areas
- 61) Banks
- 62) Firestations and emergency disaster stations
- 63) Community appointed “police” service stations
- 64) Electrical supply stations for vehicles
- 65) Sewage control stations
- 66) Sanitary water and sewage control plants
- 67) Propane gas plants
Nexus Mobile Floating Sea City Community – LIST OF PURPOSES
- 1) Learning about the sea; sea exploration
- 2) Developing techniques and machinery for studying the sea
- 3) Discovering problems and solutions of sea exploration
- 4) Understanding living on the sea and under the sea
- 5) Developing fishing and fish farming techniques for food
- 6) Creating fish farms
- 7) Creating marine agriculture
- 8) Creating new and old pharmaceuticals from the ocean
- 9) Developing techniques and machinery for distilling fresh water from sea water
- 10) Mining the sea bed
- 11) Sand and mineral dredging for commercial and industrial use
- 12) Producing “clean” power from ocean waves
- 13) Creating a boat building industry for testing, marketing and distribution of prototype designs
- 14) Developing and distributing organic fertilizer from seaweed and sewage
- 15) Producing various kinds of food from the sea
- 16) Developing various kinds of electrical generation from sea waves
- 17) Creating ways of harnessing energy from the tides
- 18) Developing and improving Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion methods
- 19) Developing ways of using wind as a power source
- 20) Developing ways of using the sun as a power source
- 21) Exploration of oil and gas sources
- 22) Developing new kinds of materials and methods of construction for on-sea and undersea structures
- 23) Developing sea transportation vehicles and methods
- 24) Learning about group decision-making processes
- 25) Developing experimental educational programs for children, teenagers and adults
- 26) Learning how to achieve agreement by unity of consensus rather than majority vote
- 27) Learning to develop a non-competition based environment
- 28) Learning how to live peacefully with others
- 29) Learning to live by self-responsibility and self-initiative
The “Ultima” Tower, Two-mile High Sky City
Any densely populated urban environment
- Project Owner: None
- Location: Any densely populated urban environment
- Date: 1991
- Cost: $150,000,000,000.00
- Population: 1,000,000 people
- Exterior surface area of building: 150,000,000 square feet
- Enclosed volume: 53,000,000,000 cubic feet
- Square footage: 1,500,000,000
- Total enclosed acreage: 39,000 acres
- Elevator speed: 20 feet per second (13 miles per hour) 9 minutes and 40 seconds to reach the top floor from the ground floor.
- Dimensions: Height–10,560 feet; Diameter at the base–6000 feet; Number of stories–500;
- Total Square Feet: Approximately 5,000,000 square feet
Why build a two-mile high, one mile wide building? To prevent the uncontrolled blight of the natural landscape by rapacious developers and industry. At current rates the surface of the planet will be nearly totally covered with residential, commercial and apartment dwellings within the coming century. Large structures such as these bring nature upward to preserve the natural surroundings and to add natural surroundings in a controlled environment. This two-mile high, trumpet bell-shaped, tension structure is the most stable and aerodynamic shape ever conceived for a tall structure. Its upper level wall thicknesses are the same as the lower level wall thicknesses unlike other structural systems that are extremely tall. It is like a suspension cable bridge stood on end. There are 120 levels to the structure with great heights at each level. The scale of this stucture is such that the entire central district of Beijing could fit into its base. One must not think in terms of floors but, instead, imagine entire landscaped neighborhood districts with “skies” that are 30 to 50 meters high. Lakes, streams, rivers, hills and ravines comprise the soil landscape on which residential, office, commercial, retail and entertainment buildings can be built.
The concept can be thought of as what would happen if nature grew upwards with multi-soil levels. Of course the structure itself acts like a living organism with its wind and atmospheric energy conversion systems, photo-voltaic exterior sheathing, and opening/closing cowl-vent windows that allow natural air into the interior without mechanical intervention. The exterior walls are made of structural glass that conforms to the cris-crossing, double helix, cable strand tension system that disperses all exterior forces along the surface. If wind or earthquake shock waves pushes or disturbs one portion of the structure the other portion absorbs and dissipates the forces. Ecological efficiency is a rule and all areas of the structure feature resource conserving technolgy such as recycled building materials, compost toilets, nature-based water cleansing systems for all buildings, plentiful amounts of forrest, plant life and water-based ecosystems.
In essence, Ultima Tower/Sky City is more an ecosystems design than an architectural habitation design. The structure provides a basis for architectural development upon which architectural diversity can flourish. Sunlight is brought into the center of the structure by means of a hollow, mirrored core that reflects sunlight and disperses it within the structure. This allows for both interior and exterior sunlight to exist in plentiful amounts. The tower sits in a natural setting in a large lake. The lake water is drawn up throughout the structure and used for cooling floors and walls. A portion of this water is heated by large passive solar panels and left to fall by gravity to be used at the various levels. No internal combustion engines or toxic pollutants exist within the confines of the structure. Everything is hydrogen gas, electrical or water powered and all heating cooling is regulated by plants and trees.
Construction Materials: High-strength steel, high-strength concrete, stainless steel, anodized aluminum, acrylic, patina copper, stainless steel cable, self-shading glass, composite ceramics, tempered glass.
Special Features: Atmospheric Thermal Energy Conversion power supplies, built-in windmills, photo-voltaic solar cells, hydrogen gas power supplies, self-regulating/self-shading glass, twelve storey-vertical high-speed train system, non-mechanical heating/ventilation and air conditioning system, ground level waterfalls for air cooling and humidity control, aerodynamic cowl window systems, open garden areas on each floor.
Ecological Requirements: To preserve the natural beauty of nature by condensing the areas of living, working environments, commerce and industry into an upwardly directed architectural structure. Multi-storied gardens are to be infused with architectural components. The presence of natural sunlight, fresh air, breeze and panoramic views are to be of primary importance. Ease and quickness of transportation vertically and laterally is crucial. The building must be fireproof, waterproof, able to resist great wind velocities and be extremely earthquake resistant. Wherever possible reduce energy use. Avoid utility costs and the use of mechanical heating and air conditioning.
General Description of Project: While engaged in a contracted study of the San Francisco Bay, its population growth, infrastructure, park areas, transportation corridors, etc., We saw at once the need for preserving what little natural park-like areas there were in such a densely composed area like the San Francisco Bay. Transportation was daily growing further and further beyond its capacity. The expansion of urban neighborhoods in and around cities was blighting the earth with more monotony and ugliness. The earth was being eaten up by the continuous disseminating reach of developers. The outward swelling of developing neighborhoods, industrial “parks”, of refineries, factories and commercial “strips” all contributed to an offensive countenance of the area.
This increasing dilation of people and property is devastating to the well-being of our environment and we are supplanting the health of our natural environment for the superficial mediocrity of our built environment. The continuation of this process will inevitably lead to a kind of psychological and spiritual suffocation by destroying the living environment at an alarming rate.
Seeing that urban sprawl shall surely destroy every semblance of our living environment a viable alternative is to go up. That is, to build in such a way as to minimize the “footprint” of our human-made environments and maximize the sense of openness and close proximity to our natural surroundings. Given the technology and know-how we now have in the construction of large,tall structures a building two miles high is not beyond our means.
The trumpet bell shape, modeled after the highest structure created by a creature other than human, the termite’s nest structures of Africa, is a most efficient form for its compressive characteristics allow the thickness of the upper supporting walls to be uniform in thickness down through the bottom of the building. No other shape can dispel loads from top to bottom, is effectively aerodynamic and retains such stability in a tall building. The size of its base would completely enclose the entire financial district of San Francisco, approximately 7000 feet across, and contains four of the world’s largest waterfalls surrounded by garden terraces. Gardens are situated at all exterior and interior openings. The whole tower could be thought of as an upward extension of the earth with layers of vegetation growing, level by level. All residences have a minimum of 100 feet by 100 feet of property where 50% of the property is covered by natural vegetation.
Large bodies of water are placed at twelve separate levels and serve multiple functions; as fire barriers and fire sprinkler system reservoirs, as recycled water catch basins, as recreational lakes, rivers, waterfalls and streams. Whenever possible whole ecosystems are supported within the building. The building is thought of as a living organism in itself capable of sustaining multitudinal life at many scales. Human beings are an indivisible of this larger life system and are nourished by the presence of other life forms. In this way the best attributes and experiences of nature are brought together to mutually benefit one another physiologically, emotionally and spiritually–a home and work environment unlike any other that has existed in the world.
The building is set in the middle of a lake where the lake acts as a reservoir for fresh water to cool the building. The periphery of the building contains 144 elevators with a vertically stacked train system that stops at 30 floors simultaneously. Vertical propulsion is through compressed air. A new concept in electrical power, Atmospheric Energy Conversion, will be tried. This system utilizes the differences in atmospheric pressure, from the base of the building to it’s top, and converts this differential to electrical power. Cooling is based on the African termite nest model where the bottom spaces are cooled with water, in this case waterfalls, the cool air rises and is warmed by bodily activity in the upper floors and exits through different levels of the building. Simultaneously all floors have specially designed windows with aerodynamic wind cowls, so that windows can be opened without having to resist tremendous wind forces. These cowls direct air throughout the interior spaces and act as natural air-conditioners.
A series of reflecting mirrors bring direct sunlight into the interior of the building, so that yards and garden areas are exposed to the sun without the danger of high wind velocities. Tsui Design and Research, Inc., is working on a system of water movement from the base to the top of the building, which is based upon the principle of transpiration and cohesion(as found in tall trees) by producing water pressure at the lower levels. By creating water potential, that is, when a wet and a dry place are joined by a tube of water, the water flows towards the dry area, water can be directed upwards over great distances. The challenge of a very tall building is the transportation of materials from the bottom to top and the maintenance of even levels of temperature, humidity and air pressure. The tree, being nature’s tallest example of a living organism, provides the working model for a tall building.
The immense surface area of the building, sheathed with photovoltaic solar cells, provides most of the electrical energy requirements. This power source combined with Atmospheric Energy Conversion and windmill power supplies more than enough power to fulfill the energy requirements of the building. All windows in the building are operable so there is no pressurized, forced-air system used internally. Manually operated windows makes temperature control simple and easy to manipulate. All spaces would have a healthy feeling of cross-circulation and the higher floors have more thinner air than the lower floors–just as it is naturally. Persons who wish to work and live in a higher sea level environment can now do so within the building.
The south-facing side of the building has a strong emphasis on open garden balconies and expansive park areas. At the forest levels biological technology plants use sunlight to break down human waste and compost for recycling back into the soil. The building is like a great expanse of natural land turned upward with ten large forest, lake and stream sanctuaries brought up into the sky.
The tower is surrounded on all sides by a lake. Sandy beaches, stone cliffs, water inlets, grass, trees and rocky islands create a beautiful and majestic setting. Two six-lane bridges carry vehicles to the underground parking with its 20 levels of parking. No internal combustion vehicles can operate on the immediate site of the building. Only electric cars, propane and hydrogen gas vehicles and bicycles can be used by its one million inhabitants. A large marina surrounds the building on the east and west sides. Pedestrian walkways and running/bicycling paths abound through hills and dales, grassy knolls, forests and fields. Beaches are easily accessible from any area and small pedestrian bridgeways connect the main building island with smaller islands and the mainland. Persons can hike 11/2 to 2 miles from the building to the mainland. A four-lane roadway surrounds the lake making spectacular opportunities to view the building from the lake’s edge.
All residential neighborhoods are located at the outer and inner edge of the building closest to views panoramic views and/or sunlight. The square footage between the neighborhood zones are reserved for retail or commercial use depending upon location. Internal taxi cab vehicles carry persons from one end of a floor to the other end at the larger diameter lower floor levels. Taxi drivers would be paid by the home and business owners association so that drivers are residents of the building who earn a livelihood from working there.
The shape of the building makes it virtually impossible to be uprooted or structurally disturbed by any kind of calamity. The buildings structure can be thought of as a giant stainless steel net stretched and anchored over a central high-strength concrete hollow core with a double helix configuration. Thus the entire building is in constant tension able to produce an equilibrium of stress and strain forces coming from any direction. Even in a tornado or hurricane the building cannot buckle or become dislodged because of its inherent strength and ability to dissipate pushing and pulling forces. Add to this its superior aerodynamic qualities of wind deflection(compound surfaces in two planes) and you are presented with a building that, for its weight and size, is virtually indestructible. Using this tension cable system the size of the cables and surface sheathing can remain constant–unlike a typical tall building where the ground level thickness of the walls must be big and heavy.
Shenzhen Ecological Theme Park
Strait of Gibraltar Floating Bridge
United States architect, Eugene Tsui, has designed the longest bridge in the world spanning the Strait of Gibraltar and connecting the continents of Europe and Africa. This revolutionary design does not resemble any existing bridge and features an original floating and submerging concept while creating a three mile wide floating island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. From this newly created island a person could view both the European and African continents for the first time in human history. When construction begins it would be the biggest architectural project in the world—and the most ecological—dwarfing Three Gorges Dam in China and Ground Zero in New York City– and would instantly become the greatest tourist destination on Earth. Spanning about 9 miles the 14.5 kilometer floating bridge contains 150 windmills and 80 underwater tidal turbines generating 12 billion kilowatt hours of electricity. Windmills and turbines can be easily added to the design as needed.
The bridge can generate enough electricity to power the southern Spanish province of Cadiz and the entire nation of Morocco making it the largest wind and water power farm in the world. This feature allows the bridge to pay for itself many times over in electrical generation not to mention tourist dollars. This is the first truly viable design in a long history of attempting to connect both continents. The design utilizes the natural current flow of the Strait and its constant winds and does not disturb the existing ecology and marine life of the site. Cost to build the bridge is ten billion U.S. dollars and would be a joint governmental partnership between Morocco, France and Spain.
The bridge is designed to float gracefully on and under the water like a giant, elegant serpent anchored to the cities of Tarifa on the southern coast of Spain to Point Cires on the northern tip of Morocco. The first mile of the bridge extends out from the coast line and then gradually slopes under the Mediterranean for two miles at a maximum depth of 200 meters or 658 feet. The bridge then slopes upward to a center floating island of three miles in length and continues down underwater again to slope up and come out onto the neighboring continent. The design allows very large ships to pass unimpeded within a four mile width where the bridge is submerged and leaves marine currents undisturbed.
Eugene Tsui’s Strait of Gibraltar Floating Bridge, as a tourist attraction, would potentially double Spain’s 50 million annual tourists and significantly increase Morocco’s current 2.3 million annual tourists to a whopping 60 million, a potential increase of 2600% or 26 times the current annual influx. This amounts to over 8 billion U.S. dollars to each country annually not to mention the significant increase in tourism to both continents. In other words, Tsui’s bridge design has the potential to jump start the entire economy of north Africa and possibly the entire African continent in one project. No doubt it would be the Eighth Wonder Of The World.
What about traffic congestion for the 60 or more million travelers who will cross the bridge? There are 24 lanes total for motor vehicle traffic; 8 lanes for automobile traffic in each direction and 4 lanes for trucks and buses. 4 standard train tracks and 2 high speed trains complete the motor vehicle accommodations. In addition, 5 elevated 30 meter wide pedestrian lanes accommodate people who wish to walk, bicycle, ride camels and horses. Lush gardens, trees, flowers, waterfalls, rest areas and drinking fountains surround all pedestrian areas which are raised one meter above motor vehicle lanes for safety. The bridge is designed to be an experience and destination in itself with an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 traveling daily and 500,000 persons at peak seasons and special days of the year.
At the three mile wide center of the bridge is a floating island which contains 150 windmills, the world’s largest enclosed convention and exhibition area 2 kilometers long (a little over a mile long), 140 meters high, 250 meters wide with 23 floors at 20 meter ceiling height with 500,000 meters squared on each floor and 1 million square meters of total parking space. The island is a veritable city flanked by 120 meter high light houses, outdoor performance plazas, theatres, giant outdoor bazaars and food markets, rolling hills of grass, flowers, trees, parks, water lagoons, bays, 50 meter high waterfalls and fountains, drinking and feeding troughs for animals, bathrooms, giant tented markets and kiosks, two large marinas for boats and tourist ships, photovoltaic solar electricity farms, constructed wetlands for raw sewage and grey water and ecological desalination plants. Similar accommodations are located at the bridge ends as it joins Tarifa and Point Cires.
The structure of the bridge is a series of fish-shaped sections, like the vertebrae of a spinal column, which are attached and locked, in overlapping fashion, to one another by giant water-proof cris-crossing cables in four directions. The sections are prefabricated on land and floated out in sections to their position. Certain sections have a water ballast area that fills with water and sinks to a calculated depth. When the bridge is set in place the cables are tightened and the entire bridge is locked in place to form an arch in plan and an undulating tube in section. The Island portion of the bridge floats on a series of hexagonally braced floating pontoons 60 meters wide. The specially design lattice system allows the island to absorb wave and wind action. It is flexible to diffuse stresses pushing upon it. A triple cable system is employed in case a single cable breaks which would be highly improbable. So far, no cable bridges have ever broken. There will be a period of tightening and adjusting and then the bridge will be in place forever.
The bridge is made of waterproof concrete, electrolytic concrete, stainless steel and anodized aluminum. Air passes rapidly through the underwater sections through a phenomenon called the Venturi effect where higher air is attracted to closed spaces and accelerates through these spaces to create a natural airflow and constant exchange of air with no mechanical power needed. All along the bridge are many areas for rest, music and dance performances, kiosks and open market bazaars. Flowers, trees, pools and waterfalls separate pedestrians from motor vehicles. It is a true extension of both African and European cultures come together on a road 14.5 kilometers long (9 miles) in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. A spectacular setting with the smells, sights and sounds of European and African cultures stir the imagination.
The last attempt at a bridge designed to span the Strait of Gibraltar was a design by U.S. engineer T.Y.Lin in 1986 which would require three support pylons one mile high and footings that plunge to the sea bottom one half mile down underwater and then sink an additional quarter of a mile destroying the existing ecology of the sea bottom surrounding it significantly disturbing the marine environment of the area. Lin’s design was based on previous traditional bridge concepts and was similar to the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco enlarged to five times its original size. Currently, the longest existing bridge is the Seto Ohashi Kojima bridge 13.22 kilometers long and built in 1988 for $8.3 billion dollars. It does not float.
Tsui’s design is revolutionary in that it floats, completely eliminating the need for and cost of, giant support pylons and the tremendous and dangerous labor cost of constructing giant footings in place. His bridge design is also held together in tension instead of compression making it much more able to absorb and dissipate stresses pushing and pulling on it. When asked about how he developed the concept he states, “I asked myself how nature would create a bridge to span the Strait of Gibraltar and this is the result. I have formed a partnership with nature and discovered nature’s power to design and problem solve far surpasses all the computers on earth.”